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Greva scrisului : la Hollywood, scenariştii lasă stiloul jos. Papagalii TV rămîn fără vorbe în cioc


Bogdan Ghiu

Luni, 05/11/2007 - 15:31
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Fără sitcomuri, fără talk-show-uri : scenariştii cer revizuirea contractelor in ceea ce priveşte creşterea procentelor rezultate din vînzarea de casete video si DVD-uri şi a drepturilor de autor pentru difuzarea conţinuturilor prin Internet şi pe telefoanele mobile. Vedete-papagal (simpli ventriloci, simpli mimi) precum Jay Leno sau David Letterman sînt obligaţi să rămînă fără vorbe în gură. Vor veni şi vor spune « Bau ! » la cadru. Fără cuvinte, regele este gol (pe dinăuntru, acolo unde stă bine ascuns textul).

În spatele aşa-zisei “civilizaţii a imaginii” stau deci, bine pitite, cuvintele scrise, imaginaţia literară aservită : noul sclavagism scriptural, literar. Se scrie mai mult ca niciodată, dar sub imagini, sub acoperămîntul înşelător al imaginilor, în sclavia exercitată de dominaţia imaginilor. Fără cuvinte nu există, iată, imagine. Fără text scris nu există nici film, nici televiziune. Nu există imagini spontane, « directe », în umbră, enorm de mult text regizează cu atenţie imaginile, să nu scape, să n-o ia razna. Aşa-zişii jurnalişti de astăzi (sau « oameni de media ») sînt, în primul rînd, scenarişti.

Scrisul ascuns sub imagine, simptom al « scenaritei » mondiale : totul se proiectează, se scrie dinainte, se regizează - viaţa însăşi. Imaginile de pe ecrane sînt imagini-ecran. Iată de ce, mai mult ca niciodată, a vedea, a privi doar imaginile înseamnă a intra, ca figurant, în scenariul de sub ele. Imaginile trebui « sparte » şi completate : citite.

Sub asfaltul imaginilor, plaja scrisului : abia acolo e soare, abia acolo se văd cerul şi lumea. Filmul şi televiziunea oferă imagini-capac, clişee, scrisul poate oferi însă vedere, vederi.

Cel mai bine ar fi însă ca aceşti scenarişti sau aşa-zis “scriitori” să rămînă definitiv în grevă. Autorii de scenarii pentru film şi televiziune sînt principalii autori morali ai propagării mediorităţii media, ai aplatizării şi extirpării imaginaţiei, ai gîndirii prin clişee, ai globalizării mediatice clişeizate, standardizate. De ruşine însă s-or ascunde ei sub imagini, neîndrăznind să trăiască din scrisul sărac, la vedere ?

În locul patronilor de presă, în infinitul lor cinism, nu le-aş da niciun ban acestor formatori de prostie. I-aş înlocui imediat cu alţii, căci marea lor virtute este de a fi ei înşişi nişte clişee perfect reciclabile, la fel ca şi produsele lor.

Dar nu : şi pentru prostie este nevoie de tehnică : copy-paste. Computerul scrie !

Les scénaristes posent leurs stylos, à Hollywood
LE MONDE Î 05.11.07 Î 12h20
Claudine Mulard

Malgré des négociations de dernière minute menées dimanche 4 novembre à Los Angeles par Juan Carlos Gonzalez, médiateur fédéral, et dans un lieu tenu secret, les producteurs de l'Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers (AMPTP) et les scénaristes de la Writers Guild of America (WGA) n'étaient pas parvenus à un accord avant le délai fixé pour le début de la grève (Le Monde du 23 octobre).
A minuit, les 12 000 scénaristes membres de la WGA doivent donc poser leurs stylos et s'abstenir de toute forme de tractation avec les studios de cinéma et de télévision. Ils ont reçu la consigne de rejoindre en masse les piquets de grève dès lundi 5 novembre au matin, devant une douzaine de lieux stratégiques à Los Angeles (studios CBS, Disney, Paramount, Sony, Universal, Warner Bros…). De plus, des piquets sont prévus à New York devant les studios de NBC, au Rockefeller Plaza.
Les scénaristes revendiquent une révision à la hausse de leurs pourcentages sur les ventes de vidéos/DVD, négociés à l'époque où la fabrication des cassettes vidéo VHS était particulièrement coûteuse, alors qu'aujourd'hui les disques compacts DVD sont moins chers à produire et les marges bénéficiaires plus avantageuses pour les producteurs-distributeurs. Ils demandent aussi l'extension des tarifs syndicaux, droits d'auteur et protection sociale aux nouveaux médias comme le Web ou les téléphones portables. En revanche, les producteurs estiment que ces technologies n'ont pas prouvé leur rentabilité.
Dès lundi, le petit écran va être le premier affecté par la grève. Les talk-shows populaires du soir comme ceux de David Letterman ou Jay Leno, qui sont alimentés quotidiennement par des scénaristes syndiqués, vont proposer des rediffusions. Si la grève dure, les séries et les sitcoms seront privées de nouveaux épisodes en plein milieu de saison, même si les chaînes de télévision ont stocké des scripts avant la date d'expiration des contrats du 31 octobre. Les studios de cinéma, moins vulnérables dans un premier temps, ont aussi fait provision de scénarios, mais doivent contourner le problème des "rewrites", ces réécritures de dialogues qui ont lieu pendant un tournage.
Hollywood n'avait pas connu de grand conflit syndical depuis 1988, où la grève des scénaristes a duré vingt-deux semaines, et coûté environ un demi-million de dollars à l'industrie du cinéma.

Los Angeles, Correspondance


Comentarii



industria scenariilor masifica(n)te

Iata ce spuneau Horkheimer&Adorno in "Dialektik der Aufklaerung":

Interested parties explain the culture industry in technological terms. It is alleged that because millions participate in it, certain reproduction processes are necessary that inevitably require identical needs in innumerable places to be satisfied with identical goods. The technical contrast between the few production centers and the large number of widely dispersed consumption points is said to demand organisation and planning by management. Furthermore, it is claimed that standards were based in the first place on consumers’ needs, and for that reason were accepted with so little resistance. The result is the circle of manipulation and retroactive need in which the unity of the system grows ever stronger. No mention is made of the fact that the basis on which technology acquires power over society is the power of those whose economic hold over society is greatest. A technological rationale is the rationale of domination itself. It is the coercive nature of society alienated from itself. Automobiles, bombs, and movies keep the whole thing together until their leveling element shows its strength in the very wrong which it furthered. It has made the technology of the culture industry no more than the achievement of standardisation and mass production, sacrificing whatever involved a distinction between the logic of the work and that of the social system.

This is the result not of a law of movement in technology as such but of its function in today’s economy. The need which might resist central control has already been suppressed by the control of the individual consciousness. The step from the telephone to the radio has clearly distinguished the roles. The former still allowed the subscriber to play the role of subject, and was liberal. The latter is democratic: it turns all participants into listeners and authoritatively subjects them to broadcast programs which are all exactly the same. No machinery of rejoinder has been devised, and private broadcasters are denied any freedom. They are confined to the apocryphal field of the “amateur,” and also have to accept organisation from above.

But any trace of spontaneity from the public in official broadcasting is controlled and absorbed by talent scouts, studio competitions and official programs of every kind selected by professionals. Talented performers belong to the industry long before it displays them; otherwise they would not be so eager to fit in. The attitude of the public, which ostensibly and actually favours the system of the culture industry, is a part of the system and not an excuse for it. If one branch of art follows the same formula as one with a very different medium and content; if the dramatic intrigue of broadcast soap operas becomes no more than useful material for showing how to master technical problems at both ends of the scale of musical experience – real jazz or a cheap imitation; or if a movement from a Beethoven symphony is crudely “adapted” for a film sound-track in the same way as a Tolstoy novel is garbled in a film script: then the claim that this is done to satisfy the spontaneous wishes of the public is no more than hot air.

The ruthless unity in the culture industry is evidence of what will happen in politics. Marked differentiations such as those of A and B films, or of stories in magazines in different price ranges, depend not so much on subject matter as on classifying, organising, and labelling consumers. Something is provided for all so that none may escape; the distinctions are emphasised and extended. The public is catered for with a hierarchical range of mass-produced products of varying quality, thus advancing the rule of complete quantification. Everybody must behave (as if spontaneously) in accordance with his previously determined and indexed level, and choose the category of mass product turned out for his type. Consumers appear as statistics on research organisation charts, and are divided by income groups into red, green, and blue areas; the technique is that used for any type of propaganda.


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